Friday, June 1, 2018

“I Have, “I Am,” & “I Can.”: Serving Students with Interrupted Formal Education

What is SIFE and who fits into this definition?

SIFE is an acronym for Students with Interrupted Formal Education. Some areas of the country have now adopted the acronym SLIFE, coined by Andrea DeCapua, ED.D., author of MALP Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradym, and several books on the topic of struggling learners, who added the word ‘limited’ to the mix to signify the extremely low educational background of some SIFE children.

Most experts use the definition of SIFE as that of a student who has missed a significant amount of educational time, but what exactly that means is up for interpretation. For students who have experienced a traumatic event that resulted in a disruption of schooling, it could be six months to a year (such as the many children who have been displaced because of Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico). For most students however, the more common measurement is two years or more.

In the United States, most of the school age children who fall into this category come from either Latin America or have been resettled as refugees. By far, the greatest number of SIFE students comes from Mexico or Central America (predominately Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras). For many of these children, their schooling in their home countries was disrupted by violence and gang warfare. They may not have been able to afford the uniforms and textbooks required for school attendance, even though the school itself was free. In each of these countries, compulsory education ends at middle school, so students often stop attending sometime around twelve or thirteen. Economics may have pushed these children into employment or driven them north to make money for their families. For other students, they feel old enough to make the journey north to reunite with their mother or father who came years earlier.

©Getty Images/pixelheadphoto
The second largest group is refugee children from Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Far too many of
these children spent years in refugee camps and had extremely limited access to schooling. Some are
not literate in their home language and may need to build basic literacy and numeracy skills before being able to access the typical curriculum of other children their age. Many SIFE will benefit from cultural and emotional support that builds on their resilience as they adjust to a new home, particularly those who have endured traumatic journeys.

Consider these four challenges that many SIFE learners face as they begin the adjustment to schooling in their new country:

  1. Frequently suffering from stress-related issues
  2. Have special literacy and academic requirements due to missing years of school
  3. May experience frequent and strong bouts of frustration with their inability to match peer performance
  4. Much higher risk of dropping out[i]
This final bullet is confirmed by a study done by the Pew Research Center in 2005 that found that immigrant students with missing pieces of their education have an 80% higher risk of dropping out.

How can schools and communities support students with interrupted education?

Supports for these students fall into two general categories: academic or classroom-based supports and non-academic supports provided outside the typical school day. Let’s look first at the types of supports that can be provided within the school and the classroom. We recommend that following activities or programs to assist SIFE learners make the adjustment to their new school:
  • Training for all personnel who work with SIFE, including secretaries and cafeteria workers
  • Developing an atmosphere of acceptance, seeing diversity as an asset
  •  Programming options that support literacy development and “fill in” content gaps in content areas
  • Expanded learning opportunities such as after school and Saturday classes, summer school, or one-to-one tutoring
  • Courses that assist students make the transition from what they know to what they are expected to be able to do (especially important in math)
  • Scheduling options that may accommodate students who work
At the classroom level, teachers are critical to this transition. Developing lessons that build upon what students already know and can do, while introducing new information in a way that is not overwhelming, can speed up the integration and academic process.
  • Activate prior knowledge and build background at the start of each lesson
  • Provide visuals when possible 
  • Choose support materials that is grade appropriate yet is visually appealing
  • Utilize hands-on and group work
  • Limit the amount of new information
  • Use frequent, informal comprehension checks
  • Adapt assessments and grading as needed
Finally, teachers can assist students as they move from overcoming traumatic experiences to developing internal resilience. We recommend a model based on the work of Edith Grotberg, researcher with the International Resilience Project in the Netherlands, which suggests that children draw their resilience from three sources which she has labeled “I Have, “I Am,” and “I Can.”[ii]

© Nunez
“I Have” leads the student to look outward at the people and community groups that provide support on a regular basis, such as religious organizations, ethnic ties, and friends.

“I Am” focuses the students on what strengths they already have inside them that has helped them to survive and thrive so far.

“I Can” encourages students of any age to think about what they already can do and what they want to be able to do in the future. Students create both short-term and long-term goals and discuss how they can reach these goals in realistic and measurable ways.

For more information on SIFE, you can check out Students with Interrupted Formal Education: Bridging Where They Are and What You Need by Brenda Custodio and Judith O’Loughlin, published in 2017 by Corwin Press. Stay tuned for a supplemental webinar on this topic.

This month's guest bloggers: Brenda Custodio and Judith B. O’Loughlin. Brenda Custodio is a former ESL teacher and building administrator from Columbus, OH.  She is a frequent presenter with Judy across the country on SIFE and newcomers. Judith O’Loughlin is a former elementary ESL and special education teacher from New Jersey who now lives in California. Judy and Brenda together wrote a book on Students with Interrupted Formal Education.

[i] Robertson, K & Lafond, S. How to Support ELL Students with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFEs)

[ii] Grotberg, E.H. (1995) A Guide to Promoting Resilience in Children: Strengthening the Human Spirit. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation. Retrieved on December 18, 2012 from

Wednesday, May 9, 2018

Supporting Newcomer Students & Parent Civic Engagement in the Schools

This month's guest blogger: Laura Gardner is a social worker and the founder of Gardner & Associates: Immigrants, Refugees, and Schools ( which provides training, technical assistance, and consultative services to school districts and other organizations on a variety of topics related to social work, education, immigration, and refugee resettlement. Laura worked for BRYCS from 2006-2012 where she managed technical assistance to Refugee School Impact Grantees.

©Getty Images/Juanmonino
After working for BRYCS with Refugee School Impact Grantees, I worked in the central office of a large school district where I managed family and community engagement for our English Learner, immigrant, and refugee communities. Having worked in different systems and at various levels has provided me with multiple points of view. These multiple perspectives continue to drive my work at finding ways immigrants and refugees can become more civically engaged with their local school systems in order to support and advocate for students. 

According to one model, there are four levels of immigrant parent involvement in schools: cultural survivors, cultural learners, cultural connectors, and cultural leaders. Visually, this model is shaped like a pyramid and closely resembles the stages of immigrant integration. “Cultural survivors” are often new to the country and their priority is meeting their families’ basic needs. They typically have little time to learn about how to navigate their local school system. “Cultural learners” begin to learn about how schools work in this country, but usually require the help of interpreters and translated documents as they navigate the system.“Cultural connectors” develop greater familiarity with the school system and often share information and opportunities with “cultural survivors” and “cultural learners.” Finally, “cultural leaders” are leaders in their respective immigrant communities and advocate for the needs of immigrant students and families, including those in the three earlier stages.

It is important that school information and programming for refugee and immigrant parents be geared towards the stage of parent involvement that they are in. The information below about parental rights, opportunities to join committees, and so on is not appropriate for newly arrived refugees and other cultural survivors. The following information is primarily geared towards refugee community leaders and other cultural leaders as well as refugee resettlement staff.

Parental Rights in Public Schools

There are numerous rights and responsibilities of parents with children in U.S. schools. Districts typically put out a parent handbook at the beginning of each school year that outlines these rights. It is a good idea for refugee resettlement staff and refugee and immigrant community leaders to keep copies of these handbooks around for when questions arise or there is a need to appeal a decision made by a district administrator.
A few rights worth mentioning:
  • All parents have the right to receive information in a language they understand. For example, this could include information shared in parent teacher conferences, information sent home in a child’s backpack, and so on. This is a federal civil rights obligation. In 2015, the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice released a joint Fact Sheet on “Information for Limited English Proficient Parents and for Schools and School Districts that Communicate with Them” in English and a number of other languages. In addition, there is BRYCS’ publication on Federal Requirements to Provide Interpretation & Translation in Schools. Sometimes school districts are not aware that they must provide these services and immigrant and refugee parents and community leaders may need to advocate for these services. School districts may not rely solely on Refugee School Impact dollars, or any federal funding source, for all interpretation and translation needs because federal funds may not be used to fund activities to implement a local school district’s civil rights obligations. 
  • All parents and community members have the right to weigh in on school board policies and regulations. Every public school district has a school board and every school board has a process in place for developing policies and regulations, which includes collecting parent and community input. For example, school boards seek input on policies related to bullying, school climate, cultural competency, equity, and so on. There are usually a couple of options for parents and community members wishing to provide input – typically online or in person. An online option may be difficult for non-English speakers and/or those without access to technology. Providing in-person feedback through an interpreter during a school board meeting may be easier and frankly, more effective. Remember, it is your right to request an interpreter to speak in front of the school board. 
  • All parents and community members have the right to provide input on the school district’s budget and how funds are being spent. Every school district has an annual process for developing their budget. Nearly every district receives some federal and state funding, but usually around half of a district’s budget comes from local funds (typically, from property taxes). It may be somewhat difficult to have an impact on the overall amount of money a district has to work with, but it is quite easy to share one’s opinion on what it should be spent on. It is important to take the time to learn how the school district budget is developed in your area because you can always try asking for additional staff such as teachers for English Learners, interpreters, school counselors, or whatever your refugee or immigrant community is in need of. Asking for what you need does not guarantee you will get it, but you must start somewhere. Whether you are in a small district where the budget is in the thousands or a large district where it is in the billions, input from resettlement staff and cultural leaders can truly make a difference. Input related to a district’s budget is usually provided through public budget hearings or by writing letters or emails. As stated above, individuals have the right to provide their input in the language they are most comfortable in. 
Other Opportunities for Refugee Parents and Community Leaders

There are other opportunities for refugee and immigrant parents and community leaders to engage with their local school system. For example:
  • Curriculum Committees: Many, if not most, school districts put together committees to review curricula and typically these committees include parents or community members. Refugee resettlement staff or community leaders may apply to join any committee they wish, but international perspectives can be particularly impactful on social studies (including history, geography, global studies, etc.), language learning, and literature. 
  • Diverse Workforce Committees: The majority of teachers in the U.S. continue to be white and female,[i] even while student bodies continue to diversify. Refugee resettlement staff and community leaders can be instrumental in helping human resources departments tap into the strengths of their communities. Most districts are desperately looking to hire more multilingual, multicultural employees. Refugees and immigrants have so much to offer school districts, with their diverse skills and life experiences. For example, a school district could hire a French-speaking refugee or immigrant to teach students French or a refugee from Southeast Asia who to teach history. (Refugees who were teachers in their home countries will likely have to start out as paraprofessionals while they deal with additional coursework or recertification, but it’s much easier to gain employment as a teacher if you are already employed by the school system in another capacity.) 
  • School Improvement Committees: Most schools have in place some type of “school improvement plan.” It may be called something different depending on the district, but these are plans that schools put together to create goals towards improving students’ academic achievement. These committees often brainstorm ways to increase family engagement and what better way to gather ideas than to ask the parents themselves? These committees are always stronger with the voices of parents and community members. 
  • Parent/Community Committees: Some districts have committees specifically for parents and community members. These committees may meet with board members or the superintendent and/or may be more of a work group or task force dedicated to a particular topic. These types of parent groups tend to lack diversity, and refugees and immigrants would provide a helpful, much needed perspective. For example, a committee of parents could be tasked with collecting parental input on a proposed redistricting plan. Without refugee and immigrant parent leaders present, this information would not likely get to the communities that would be most impacted by such changes.
© Debenport
It is also important to note that in the 2018-19 school year, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) will be implemented at the district level. ESSA reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and replaced No Child Left Behind (NCLB). It was signed into law on December 10, 2015 and states have since submitted accountability plans to the U.S. Education Department. ESSA has increased emphasis on family and community engagement, particularly with those learning English, so it is a perfect time for refugee parents, community leaders, and Refugee School Impact staff to get more involved. It is crucial to get involved in supporting refugee and immigrant students and families at the district level, such as by speaking at school board meetings or sharing communities’ needs when budgets are created. Ultimately, these actions will help contribute to more civic engagement and integration of refugee and immigrant families into communities.


Tuesday, March 27, 2018

What Now? Post-High School, College & Career Readiness for Refugee Youth

For newcomer teens and families, deciding what to do after high school can be difficult and filled with unknowns. The process of preparing for and applying to colleges is complex and likely unfamiliar to newcomer families, who are also apt to need information on the often difficult issue of financing college. For youth looking to move directly into the workplace, options may appear limited unless they receive help identifying training programs and other possibilities.
Some tips for helping newcomer students make decisions about life after high school:
  • Mentorship can be invaluable. Mentors can provide a connection to the larger community, a sense of belonging, as well as practical assistance in navigating the college application process, identifying and applying for financial aid, or exploring vocational and career training programs. Mentors are able to provide the kind of ongoing one-on-one assistance many students need and which school guidance counselors may not have the time for.
  • Help youth learn about the variety of options available: two year and four year colleges; public vs. private schools, technical/vocational programs; dual enrollment and other career training programs they can participate in during high school.
  • Encourage newcomer teens to stay in school. Many newcomers may have had interrupted schooling and will also be struggling with learning a new language. The process can be discouraging, and if their family is struggling financially it may seem appealing to leave school and begin work. Help kids understand the importance of a high school diploma and postsecondary education in the U.S., especially in terms of long term earning potential and the variety of jobs available.
“My advice is if you have chance of going to college, use it. I know sometimes college is challenging but it’s better because you don’t want to work for the rest of your life in the same place every day. Jobs are always there. They can wait.” –Ali, refugee youth from Somalia
College Preparation
For newcomer teens and parents, it may not be clear what is needed to prepare for college. Talk to teens about the career they want and then discuss the steps necessary to get there.   
  • Host or bring teens to bilingual information sessions at high schools on college admissions processes and financial aid. Work with local colleges to host bilingual events to share information on their application process and financial aid.
  • Schools can hold information sessions during the school day for all juniors or seniors and post information on postsecondary education options around the school.
  • Advanced college prep courses are important; for students with adequate English, it may be necessary to help parents to advocate for teens to be enrolled in these courses. For students who are not ready largely due to language barriers, community college can be a good option for gaining college credit and English proficiency. Some ELL students may still be able to participate in advanced math or science courses.
  • Partner with local colleges:
    • ELL classes can take students to a local community college to explore the campus as well as visit the international student or ELL center. Make students aware of the supportive services available to them at the community college.
    • Invite former ELL students who are now in two or four year colleges to speak to ELL classes.
    • Promising practices: Yakima Valley Community College has had a weekly segment on a local Spanish language radio program; Washington State University has a Spanish language website with multimedia resources on going to college.
Promising Practices: GirlForward matches female mentors with high school age refugee girls in Chicago and Austin to provide educational support, including assistance accessing higher education. PAIR in Houston partners refugee youth with college students to assist with acculturation, education, college preparation and career goals.
Involving Parents
  • Host information sessions or create education programs for parents on college and career readiness. Send home invitations in families’ native languages and provide interpreters in major languages spoken. Share information on scholarships for immigrant and refugee students.  
  • Don’t assume parents and teens know what college readiness entails in the U.S., including what courses to take. At information sessions, consider inviting refugee or immigrant parents who have gone through the college application process already so they can share their experiences. 
  • Help parents understand the timeline for college applications. Parents may rely on their older children to babysit younger siblings or take care of household chores. If parents understand when things like college essays or applications are due they may be able to give their child time to work on them.
  • Parent centers within schools can be a great resource. They can be staffed with parent volunteers and provide information about the school and curricula as well as offer information on college and career readiness. A parent center can also offer access to computers and allow parents to meet each other and share information.
Promising Practice: Refugee School Impact Grant money can be used in various ways to support refugee youth in moving toward college or a career. Massachusetts RSIG has funded bilingual/bicultural parent liaisons to connect with parents and increase parent engagement in schools. It has also supported a partnership with a local food growing non-profit; refugee youth involvement has included internships and volunteer work which provides work experience, community engagement, and leadership skills.
Career Preparation and Workplace Readiness
  • Newcomer students may be particularly drawn to employment options after high school especially if they are feeling economic pressure to supplement their family’s income. These students may need help uncovering the variety of training options available to help them get better paying, more rewarding jobs.
  • Help students enroll in career and technical education (CTE) classes and programs within your school district. Some classes may be taught within traditional high schools, while others are held at community colleges and may offer both high school and college credit.  
  • If possible, joint CTE and English language instruction can be effective in maximizing learning time and more swiftly helping ELL students receive valuable job skills and become proficient in English.
  • A part time job during high school can provide valuable lessons in workplace expectations and can assist newcomer students in learning and using English.       
  • Military service: In addition to other career options, students may consider joining the military. Young adults with a green card can join the military. In addition, people with other legal status, such as temporary protected status (TPS), may also be able to join the military if they meet certain requirements, such as fluency in specific languages. See for additional information. 
Promising Practice: Bethany Christian Services (BCS), in Grand Rapids, MI, created an innovative job training program for refugee youth in their foster care program. They partnered with a local hospital which was seeking to hire more patient transporters and diversify its staff. These staff members move patients within the hospital and require special certification to do the job. BCS refugee clients who met certain criteria (18 or older, high school diploma or GED, and able to speak English well enough to communicate with patients) could apply to be in the program. Clients were supported by BCS staff to create a resume and participate in an interview with BCS and the hospital. Successful applicants entered a 2 ½ month certification program; the training included classroom-based learning, as well as an internship at the hospital which helped participants gain familiarity with U.S. workplace norms and expectations. The classroom training was provided by a BCS staff member, which allowed for specialized attention to things like linguistic challenges (e.g. non-native speakers needing extra help learning medical terminology). Upon completion of the training, participants were offered a patient transport job at the hospital.
Undocumented Students
There is no federal law prohibiting undocumented students from attending college in the U.S. However, they may face additional challenges, such as paying for college.
  • Federal financial aid, including loans and federal work-study programs, is not available to undocumented students.
  • Some states allow undocumented students to pay in state tuition at state schools.  
  • Some states and individual colleges offer financial assistance for undocumented students. See the highlighted resource list below for additional information
For more information, including resources on financial aid, check out BRYCS Highlighted Resource List:

This month's guest blogger: Margaret MacDonnell, BRYCS Consultant

Monday, January 29, 2018

Female Genital Cutting: Improving the Care of Women and Girls at Risk

“It is what my Grandmother called the three feminine sorrows: The day of circumcision, the wedding night, and the birth of a baby.” – A Somali poem

Picture yourself as a young teenager, maybe thirteen at most. Perhaps you are getting your first period, you are experiencing the beginnings of womanhood. But then all of that is taken away and replaced with sheer pain and trauma. Your legs are being forced open and the most vulnerable and private part of your body is being mutilated and closed off for no reason other than to appease patriarchal ideals of women and virginity.

Female genital cutting includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is most often carried out on females between 0 and 15 years old. Anesthetic is not used during or after the procedure. In takes place in many countries in Africa, Asia, New Zealand, and the Middle East. It is carried out despite the trauma, risk factors, and pain that it causes. It is both a global and inter-generational issue.

Over 200 million women alive today have suffered through FGC. Three million are expected to be cut this year alone. It was estimated in 2013 that 91 percent of women and girls between the ages of 15-49 in Egypt had gone through FGC in their life.

Where there are strong beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behavior, FGC aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. It is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido and therefore believed to help her resist extramarital sexual acts. Many places uphold ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the idea that girls are clean and beautiful after the removal of body parts that are considered unclean and unfeminine.

As a result of the plethora of issues attached to FGC, focus groups were held in March, 2017. There were three focus group sessions of refugee clients who were from practicing or previously practicing cultures. Different age groups were represented from Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. Lively discussions were held centered on questions about what kind of interest was there among the communities to participate, what people’s concerns were, what new conversations have started surrounding the issue, and what resettlement programs are going to do going forward.

In regards to concerns, some participants shared heart breaking stories of their experiences with health care providers who were not aware of FGC. One participant shared how her first visit to an OB/GYN doctor in a hospital shocked the doctor, who then invited fellow doctors and interns to look at her genitals. The participant stated that she was very embarrassed as a result, and thought that if the doctor had been aware of FGC then he would not have embarrassed her in that way. To think that after all the trauma this woman had already been through, that this doctor would add to that, is disheartening and wrong. Situations like that one have happened to countless women.

These conversations and sharing of personal stories sparked many ideas and proposals for what can be done. That goal being to develop factual, meaningful, and user friendly resources on FGC that are well informed by communities and tailored to specific audiences, like medical professionals. These educational resources were the main desire of women in attendance. For doctors that were not educated, many of the women wanted to have a written description of what occurred and what the cultural reasoning was for FGC, so that they would not have to relive the trauma of FGC in explaining it. The women also wanted parenting support, nutritional aid, and mental health support during the adjustment period in the United States. We have started facilitating parenting, nutritional and hygiene support groups for these women and other refugee clients in the community who have expressed interest through various in house programs in our agency. For example, our Social Adjustment Services program began holding parenting and hygiene support groups for clients needing these types of services.

USCCB/MRS believes that, with well-developed resources combined with the trusted relationship these organizations have with refugee communities, FGC could be properly and sensitively addressed with refugee communities to work towards elimination of FGC. Better care could then be given to women who have already gone through the procedure, because health care professionals could be better informed on the issue. Many sites in the US have agreed to contribute to this project, including San Antonio. These sites, with their efforts, including conversation with refugee communities directly, will provide facts and material that can be used for creating resources.

The women are still talking about the convention and many were pleasantly surprised that this was becoming a broader issue that so many people wanted to be addressed in America. Thanks to the hard work of different communities and survivors of FGC, and their continued efforts in promoting conversation and advocating for women’s sexual rights, there is hope for change. The women in attendance were all passionate to help make change happen. They do not want to keep quiet on this issue nor should they.

For more information on FGC, visit:

This month's guest blogger: Juliana Horn, Non-Projected Arrivals/Extended Care Services Director, Catholic Charities Archdiocese of San Antonio

Monday, December 4, 2017

Managing Trauma: Tips for Supporting Refugee Teens in Schools, Refugee Resettlement, & Other Contexts

As follow-up from today's webinar, please feel free to continue the discussion below!

This webinar builds off of BRYCS previous webinar on Understanding Trauma in Refugee Youth. Hugo Kamya, PhD, Professor and Fulbright Specialist Roster Scholar at the Simmons College School of Social and Lisa Fontes, PhD, Senior Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts encourage you to reflect on your work and relationships with refugee teens. Participants will learn about some of the dilemmas facing refugee teenagers, how to converse helpfully and meaningfully with refugee teens, as well as ways to intervene more effectively with refugee teens, their families, and schools.

Additional resources:

Blanco-Vega, C.O., Castro-Olivio, S.M., & Merrel, K.W., (2008). Sociocultural model for development and implementation of culturally specific interventions. Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(1),43-61.
Boyson, B… & Short, D. (2012). Helping newcomer students achieve success in secondary schools and beyond. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
BRYCS. (2017). Collective Voices for Improving the Care & Reducing the Risk of Female Genital Cutting (FGC).
BRYCS. (2010). Child Abuse Issues with Refugee Populations (PART I)- Recognizing Suspected Child Maltreatment in Culturally Diverse Refugee Families
BRYCS. (2010). Child Abuse Issues with Refugee Populations (PART II)- Refugee Resettlement and Child Welfare: Working Together for Child Protection
Chapman, C., Laird, J., Hill, N., & Ramani, A.K. (2011). Trends in High School Dropout ad Completion Rates in the United States: 1979-2009.  Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Fontes, L.A. (2005). Child Abuse and Culture: Working with Diverse Families. New York, NY: Guilford.
Fontes, L.A. (2008). Interviewing Clients Across Cultures. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Fontes, L.A. (2008). Interviewing Clients across Cultures: A Practitioner’s Guide. New York, NY: Guilford.
Fontes, L.A. (2010). Interviewing immigrant children for suspected child maltreatment. Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, 38, 283-305. 
Fontes, L.A. (2015). Invisible Chains: Overcoming Coercive Control in Your Intimate Relationship. New York, NY: Guilford.
Fontes, L.A. (2017). Building Resilience After Trauma: Lessons from Chile. New York, NY: Psychology Today.
Fontes, L.A. (2017). Helping Refugee Children Cope. New York, NY: Psychology Today.
Fontes, L.A. (2017). Keeping Refugee Children and Teens Safe. New York, NY: Psychology Today.
Fontes, L.A. (2017). Translating Trauma: Foreign Language Interpreting in Therapy. New York, NY: Psychology Today.
Jensen, L. (2005). The demographic diversity of immigrants and their children. In R.G. Rumbaut & A. Portes (Eds.) Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America ((pp. 21-56). Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
Kamya, H. (2008). Healing from Refugee Trauma: The Significance of Spiritual Beliefs, Faith Community, and Faith-based Services. In  Froma Walsh (Ed.). Spiritual resources in family therapy (286-300).  2rd edition.  New York: Guilford Press. 
Kamya, H. (2009). The impact of war on children: How children make meaning from war     experiences. Journal of Immigrant and refugee Studies, 7, 2, 211-216
Kamya, H. (2011). The impact of war on children:  The psychology of displacement and exile.  In Kelle, B. (Ed.). Interpreting Exile: Interdisciplinary studies of displacement and deportation in Biblical and modern contexts. (pp.235-249). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature Press.
Kamya, H.  & Mirkin, M.(2008). Working with immigrant and refugee families. In Monica   McGoldrick and Kenneth Hardy (Eds.). Revisioning Family Therapy: Race, culture and gender in clinical practice. 2nd edition. (pp. 311-326). New York: Guilford Press.(a  revised chapter is coming out 2018 in 3rd edition)
Kamya, H. & White, E. (2011).  Expanding cross-cultural understanding of suicide among immigrants: The case of the Somali.  Families in Society, 92(4), 419-425.
Kamya, H. (2012). The cultural universality of narrative techniques  in the creation of meaning.  In B. MacKin, Newman, E., Fogler, J., & Keane, T. (Eds.) Trauma therapy in context:  The science and craft of evidence based practice. (pp.231-246). Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
McBrien, J.L. (2005). Educational needs and barriers for refugee students in the United States: A review of the literature.  Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 329-364.
Muslim Youth Girls Association. (2010). Top 5: Gym Class Hijabi Tips.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). Types of Trauma.
Mendenhall, M., Bartlett, L., & Ghaffar-Kucher, A. (2017). ‘If you need help, they are always there for us.”: Education for refugees in an International High School in NYC.  Urban Review, 49, 1-25.
Paat, Y. (2013). Working with immigrant children and their families: An application of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23, 954-966.
Paat, Y. (2013). Understanding the role of immigrant families’ cultural and structural mechanisms in immigrant children’s experiences beyond high school: Lessons for social work practitioners. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23, 514-528.
Presidential Task Force on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma in Children and Adolescents. (2008). Children and Trauma: Update for Mental Health Professionals. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.  
Schneider, S. & Kamya, H. (in press). Community-Based Services for Refugees and Immigrants: Utilizing Social Capital, Human Capital and Cultural Capital to Improve Family Functioning and Well-Being Among the Somali, Families in Society.
Tseng, V. (2006). Unpacking immigration in youths’ academic and occupational pathways. Child Development, 77(5), 1434-1445.
Watkinson, J.S. & Hersi, A.A. (2013). School counselors supporting African immigrant students’ career development: A case study. The Career Development Quarterly, 62, 44-55.
Yohani, S. (2010) Nurturing hope in refugee children during early years of post-war adjustment. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 865-873.